# Undergraduate courses in probability

**431 - Introduction to the theory of probability**

Math 431 is an introduction to probability theory, the part of mathematics that studies random phenomena. We model simple random experiments mathematically and learn techniques for studying these models. Topics covered include methods of counting (combinatorics), axioms of probability, random variables, the most important discrete and continuous probability distributions, expectations, moment generating functions, conditional probability and conditional expectations, multivariate distributions, Markov's and Chebyshev's inequalities, laws of large numbers, and the central limit theorem.

Probability theory is ubiquitous in natural science, social science and engineering, so this course can be valuable in conjunction with many different majors. 431 is not a course in statistics. Statistics is a discipline mainly concerned with analyzing and representing data. Probability theory forms the mathematical foundation of statistics, but the two disciplines are separate.

531 - Probability theory

632 - Introduction to stochastic processes

635 - Introduction to Brownian motion and stochastic calculus